The world of medicine is changing very quickly and it has come a long way. Now CBD (Cannabidiol) products are being sold legally online and at dispensary’s across the United States and in other Countries.
The legal status of CBD may seem obvious to some, but consumers need to be aware there are actually 2 types of “CBD Oil” products and there are several formats they may be sold in such as Oils, Pastes, Capsules, Edibles and Tinctures etc.
Here is a photo of several cannabis medicine bottles from the old days when it was legal and used as a medicine. Cannabis is not a new concept as it once was a popular medication, and it was prescribed for many ailments during the “golden age” for cannabis medicine before the 1937 “Marihuana Tax Act” effectively outlawed it. In addition, cananbis has been used as a medicine for thosuands of years dating back 1,000 years BC in India and 5,000 years BC in China.
The 3 important details to know about a CBD product
- One is the percentage or composition of the CBD Oil whether it is predominantly CBD (Cannabidiol) or CBD-A, or a mix of both in the product. This is important to know so you can better understand the effects you will receive.
- The second is which kind of CBD oil is inside the product, whether the substance was extracted from Marijuana plants or Hemp plants. The CBD that comes from Cannabis Marijuana flowers will reach much higher concentration levels than Hemp. Also there are benefits of CBD from potent Cannabis flowers which has a therapeutic and powerfully effective combination of natural flavanoids and cannabinoids, terpenes and terpenoids.
- The third is basically knowing what forms of the oil would work best for you, and whether you are in a State with laws that allow you to legally have CBD products that originated from Cannabis/Marijuana plants.
Government studies have proven CBD to be a very safe product stating positive outcomes:
“No signs of toxicity or serious side effects have been observed following chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers, even in large acute doses of 700 mb/day.”
Information on CBD
CBD, aka Cannabidiol, is one of 70+ known cannabinoids found in cannabis marijuana. This cannabinoid is non-toxic and non-intoxicating, and acts as an anti-oxidant, an anxiolytic (to have anti-anxiety effects), an anti-carcinogen (to have anti-cancer effects), an anti-psychotic, an anti-convulsive, an anti-spasmodic, and is also able to reduce seizures and reduce the effects of spasticity.
CBD is found in the hemp plant which is legal at a greater scale than cannabis or marijuana. Although the finest CBD oils may come from marijuana flowers or buds that are CBD rich strains. It is known Hemp is legal in 40 countries and all States in the USA, although cannabis marijuana is illegal in every country of the world except for Uruguay.
There is a syndrome called, Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome. You don’t want to suffer from this, so make sure you start adding regiments of CBD to your health routine. CBD products with low-thc are legal in every State, and no prescription is ever needed.
CBD rich remedies might soon be the most talked about and best dietary supplement on the planet. CBD products can be found in many forms: paste, oils, tinctures, extracts, vapor, capsules, salves and beauty products as well. The products are offered in varying concentrations from very low to very high for various situations.
Many medical conditions are shown to be helped by CBD, as well as the other ingredients inside cannabis marijuana. There has been tons of research done and we know many of the sciences behind cannabis.
Here is a small sample of studies performed:
CBD as a potential new schizophrenia treatment
CBD as a powerful anti-anxiety drug
CBD as a pain reliever for cancer sufferers
CBD to treat spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Cannabinoids as a possible cancer treatment
Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids – by NORML.ORG
CBD is biphasic – a low dose can make you more alert, while a high dose may make you drowsy. For example, Alcohol has a stimulating effect (happy, uninhibited, and carefree) when consuming up to a blood alcohol level of 0.05%. When drinking past 0.05%, alcohol will then have a depressant effect, not a stimulating one. Drinking more does not make you “happier”. This is known as biphasic, when a substance produces one type of effect at a lower dose level of consumption and a different type of effect at an increased level of consumption and these effects are dose dependent. Cannabidiol compounds have biphasic properties where by small doses and high does have opposite effects.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound converted from CBDA in cannabis that has significant medical effects but does not have the psychoactive effects of THC.
- Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid found in cannabis:
- CBD has displayed sedative effects.
- Some research also indicates that CBD can increase alertness.
- Cannabidiol has shown to decrease activity of the limbic system and to decrease social isolation.
- It’s also shown that Cannabidiol reduces anxiety in social anxiety disorder.
- CBD also appears to protect against ‘binge’ alcohol induced neuro-degeneration.
- Medically, Cannabidiol has been shown to relieve convulsion, inflammation, anxiety and nausea.
- Studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia.
- A study suggested that CBD may be effective in the management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a Parkinson’s Disease patient.
- In November 2007, it was reported that CBD reduces growth of aggressive human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces their invasiveness.
- Cannabidiol has also been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth with low potency in non-cancer cells.
Differences between THC and CBD
The differences between the two, THC and CBD, need to be understood. The THC chemical provides a psychoactive intoxicating effect while the other CBD type of chemical provides a more sobering effect with more medicinal properties. Some say THC may cause anxiety and trigger psychosis while CBD will suppress or eliminate anxiety and is found to be anti-psychotic.
The real truth about cannabis is the fact that it can be good for your health. In the recent years the media has talked about the CBD oils and how they are being used by not just adults but children as well who can benefit from its use. One of the most popular known stories is about Charlotte Figi, who now lives a better life thanks to a special line of CBD cannabis products called Charlottes Web. CBD has shown to be a wonder to anyone fighting chronic pains, spasticity, seizures, cancer and anxiety.
The Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of science’s newest and most exciting discoveries. The ECS regulates relaxation, eating, sleeping, certain inflammation responses and even cognitive function. There are two types of cannabinoid receptors found throughout the body (CB1 and CB2), but they are most abundant in the brain and immune system respectively. Believe it or not in a nutshell, your ECS is responsible for making sure your entire body is working optimally.
Our current level of understanding of CBD has only been reached in the last few years, following the discovery of a system of receptors within the human body termed the Endocannabinoid System. This system has been shown to play a critical role in regulating our physiology, mood and immune system. Cannabinoid compounds are able to bind to these receptors which are placed throughout our brain as well as in every major organ in our body.
There are three general types of cannabinoids found. The first type is the one produced in our own body known as “endogenous cannibinoids”. The second type is produced by plants and is called “phytocannabinoids”. The third type is synthetically engineered in a lab and is known as “synthetic cannabinoids”.
- What is clear is that this system of receptors is critical to human health. We need cannabinoids in the same way that we need vitamins. They are part of a healthy lifestyle.
- First cannabinoid discovered in 1964 by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, PhD, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem, Israel.
- 1992 Dr. Mechoulam discovered the body’s endo-cannabinoid system.
- The endo-cannabinoid system helps regulate every physiological system (digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, muscular, etc).
- Cannabinoid receptor sites are found throughout the entire body including the brain, organs, glands, connective tissue, immune cells and more.
- Plant cannabinoids (from Hemp) help stimulate your endo-cannabinoid system.
Importance of Your Body’s Endocannabinoid System
Cannabinoids act as neuro-modulators and help regulate every physiological system such as our nervous system, digestive system, reproductive system, immune system, endocrine system, and muscular system. Cannabinoids are an essential component involved in keeping the body systems balanced and stable, maintaining what’s known as homeostatic balance.
CBD works naturally with your own Endocannabinoid System (ECS).
You have a vascular system, digestive system, immune system – did you know you also have an endo-cannabinoid system? It’s the great regulator of many physiological systems – even metabolism. Your ECS has receptors for cannabinoids that you may or may not be making in sufficient quantity. CBD supplementation seems to give your own body’s endocannabinoid system a power boost – potentially enhancing immune function and helping with various conditions, some listed here:
- Antibiotic Resistance
- Endocrine Disorders
- General Wellness
- Heart Disease
- Irritable Bowel IBS
- Joint Pain
- Kidney Disease
- Liver Disease
- Metabolic Syndrome
- Mood Disorders
- Motion Sickness
- Multiple Sclerosis MS
- Neuropathic Pain
- Prion/Mad Cow
- Sickle Cell Anemia
- Skin Conditions
- Sleep Disorders
- Spinal Cord Injury
Why haven’t I heard of CBD before?
Late in 2009, shortly after the US Justice Department released the “Ogen memo” hinting at a more permissive medical marijuana federal policy, a few strains of CBD-rich cannabis were discovered. Despite the huge potential market for less psychoactive and non-psychoactive cannabis, the introduction of CBD-rich oils was slow, as many medical marijuana dispensaries’ customers were typically seeking THC-dominant marijuana that provides mild euphoria and relaxation.
The general public, including most medical marijuana users, hadn’t yet heard about CBD, and growers didn’t want to devote garden space to plants for which there was no established market. In mid-February 2014, President Obama signed a bill (the Farm Bill) finally allowing hemp and hemp products (CBD) to be used, and not classified as a drug. CBD knowledge is rapidly spreading and great products are coming to market.
Both THC and CBD have the same molecular formula, but are a bit different structurally. CBD is a basically structural isomer of THC. It is this slight difference in structure between the two that enables THC to produce a “high” in the user, and CBD does not.
Both CBD and THC are found in HEMP and MARIJUANA in differing ratios. THC and other identified cannabinoids CBD, CBN, CBG, CBC and dozens more, are phytocannabinoids produced through photosynthesis in hair-like trichomes on the surface of the cannabis plant during the flowering phase.
The different species of cannabis plants have a wide variety of ratios of THC to CBD. For instance, Cannabis saliva L. ssp. saliva can have a THC:CBD ratio 4-5 times that of Cananbis saliva L. ssp. indica, meaning saliva strains have high levels of THC and comparatively low levels of CBD. It is now common to grow the strains that best suit one’s needs. For example one commercial strain of medicinal cannabis can have a 41:1 ratio of THC:CBD and another commercial cannabis medicinal may have a 0.42:1 THC:CBD ratio. Cannabis saliva L. ssp. ruderalis is generally low in THC and is typically not used for medicinal preparations. This information is important to note, as all medications can produce unwanted side effects and cannabis is no different, due to varying THC.
There are 120+ or so aromatic terpenoids in cannabis plants that give cannabis its distinctive scent when burned. Many researchers are of the opinion that these terpenoids have a direct synergistic “Entourage Effect” when consumed all together.
Brief History of Hemp
Hemp extracts have been used for many purposes dating back to the ancient Chinese Pharmacopoeia, estimated at year 5,000 BC. Cannabis and hemp products were considered medicines and readily listed in the US Pharmacopoeia from 1850 through the early 1940′s. Cultivating hemp was banned in the United States in 1937.
When derived from hemp stalk, our hemp oil constituent is considered a food nutrient or dietary supplement, delivering the benefits of cannabinoids without the psychoactive/euphoric effects of THC. There are over 400 constituents found in marijuana/hemp.
Recent scientific research has shown that humans (and all mammals) have an affinity for these cannabinoids. Mammalian cells contain two known receptor sites on cell membranes for various cannabinoid compounds. Humans can supplement any potential deficiencies in their endo-cannabinoid systems with plant-derived phyto-cannabinoids, Phyto-cannabinoids have also been found in flax, cloves, hops and black pepper.
Original Classification of Cannabis
The original classification of Cannabis indica was made by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1785.
Lamarck observed that certain marijuana plants from India were intoxicating and could be made into hashish. But traditional hemp crops, which were more common in Europe, had no mind-altering effect.
He came up with the name Cannabis indica to distinguish Indian cannabis from European hemp, which was known at the time as Cannabis sativa. Likewise, Cannabis indica was specifically recognized as a therapeutic in Western medicine during the 1800s.
Scientists that have studied the differences between indica and sativa have come up with a number of theories based on genetics. One prevailing theory focuses on the genetic production of THC and CBD.
Plants that produce high levels of THC express genes that code for the enzyme THCA synthase. This enzyme converts CBG into THCA, which becomes THC when heated. These plants are typically considered indica.
On the other hand, some plants express genes that code for the enzyme CBDA synthase. This enzyme converts CBG into CBDA, the precursor of CBD, instead. These plants are typically considered sativa.
Based on this explanation, indica plants have high THC:CBD ratios and sativa plants have high CBD:THC ratios.
The problem is that, today, many strains produce varying amounts of both enzymes. Some researchers believe this is due to hybridization of the gene pools, which explains why some sativas are rich in THC and some indicas are not.
An alternate theory based on geographic origin has also been proposed. A common Cannabis species is thought to have originated from central Asia before separating into distinct sativa and indica gene pools.
Recent attempts to distinguish sativa verses indica have relied on a combination of geographical and genetic theories. The existence of a few rare species, such as Cannabis ruderalis, has been suggested but much about them remains unknown.
Classifications of Hemp and Cannabis Marijuana
Marijuana and HEMP (also known as Industrial Hemp) both belong to the same plant family known as HEMP FAILY, or Cannabaceae in Latin. Under the HEMP FAMILY, they are both in the Genus HEMP, or Cannabis L in Latin. Therefore technically, “cannabis” refers to what is known as all types of MARIJUANA and HEMP.
This HEMP Genus of flowering plants indcludes a single Species commonly called MARIJUANA or Cannabis sativa L in Latin.
This species of MARIJUANA has three further subspecies: MARIJUANA SATIVA (Cannabis Sativa L ssp. Sativa), MARIJUANA INDICA (Cannabis sativa L ssp. indica), and MARIJUANA RUDERALIS (Cannabis sativa L ssp. ruderalis).
|Biological Classification of Marijuana|
|Category||Latin Name||Common Name|
|Sub Kingdom||Tracheobionta||Vascular Plants|
|Species||Cannabis sativa L.||marijuana|
|Subspecies||Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa||marijuana/sativa|
|Subspecies||Cannabis sativa L. ssp. indica||marijuana/indica|
|Subspecies||Cannabis sativa L. ssp. ruderalis||marijuana/ruderalis|
|by Steven Leonard-Johnson & Tina Rappaport|
Chemotypes of Cannabis Marijuana
Michael Starks, in his book Marijuana Chemistry (1990) attempted to classify the different strains of landrace marijuana according to their ratio of cannabinoids, called chemotypes. Although we cannot yet explain why the original strains of temperate northern climates of the planet are often rich with CBD, while those that have been grown in warmer southern climates are generally richer in THC.
A recent explanation suggests that the amount of UV rays and high temperatures in which it is grown could favour the production of THC, while a slight difference of day / night temperature, moderate exposure to UV rays and a shorter duration of the day, would favor the CBD production.
Here are the four main chemotypes of marijuana, as defined by Michael Starks:
- Plants with high levels of THC and very little CBD. These generally originate from the regions under latitude 30 ° north (passing through Morocco to Iran, India, China, Mexico and North Florida).
- Plants with a reduced level of THC and high levels of CBD, are found in regions above 30 ° north latitude.
- Plants with high levels of THC, and very little CBD originate in Northeast Asia. These contain low amounts of CBGM (Cannabigerol Monomethyl Ether), another little studied cannabinoid.
- Plants with a lot of THC, very little CBD and of which the THC is, in reality largely present in the form of THCV. These are native to Indonesia, South Africa and Nepal.
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE
These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease. Always check with your physician before starting a new dietary supplement program.
* Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural constituent of hemp oil.